Conrad Hal Waddington (1905-1975) succeeded F.A.E. Crew as Chair of Animal Genetics and director of the Institute of Animal Genetics in 1945. Waddington pioneered an interdisciplinary approach to science which included art, environmental studies and philosophy. He laid the groundwork for several new areas of genetics research which continue today. For his book New Patterns in Genetics and Development, Waddington was one of the first to use an electron microscope to study bird and animal embryos. These drafts show him combining embryology with genetics to understand how organisms develop. The structure of DNA was known by this time, but Waddington was interested in looking beyond the chromosomes to explore how genes are affected by their surroundings.