These images depict a tumour made up of different tissues which has been created with Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) at the University's MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine. iPSCs were pioneered in 2006 by Shinya Yamanaka (b. 1962) at Kyoto University. Dolly's birth had proved that fully specialised cells can be repurposed to form other cell types, but Yamanaka discovered a new way of turning cells back to an embryonic state. These iPSCs can be generated from adults, avoiding the ethical concerns associated with research using human embryos. Yamanaka was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2010 for his discovery, jointly with John Gurdon.